In the world of pets, there is a lot of emphasis on understanding the body language of dogs to prevent dog bites and to better understand when our canine friends are feeling stressed. However, what about cats? As a self-proclaimed cat lady, I believe cats are misunderstood animals because they are more complex in the way they communicate with us. However, it’s important to learn the ways all of our furry friends are communicating with us so that they may live a fulfilled, stress-free life.

Here are some pointers to help determine when a cat is content versus seriously ticked off:

Note: Body language must be taken in context and owners should look at all of the cues of the body as opposed to just reading one part of the body.

Tails

Cats use their tails through movement and position to communicate with us.

A thumping tail or back and forth tail tip usually shows overstimulation. This typically happens while petting a cat. If you see this movement, it would be best to leave them be and take the polite warning. If not respected, it could result in a bite.

Tails held high is a sign that your cat is confident and ready for an interaction. However, this can be in an assertive or friendly way. Look at if the cat is stiff versus relaxed to determine the true meaning.

The question mark tail, tail held high with a kink in the end, is a sign that the cat is friendly and curious, while a tail that is straight and quivering is a sign of excitement. Seeing you walk through the door after you have been gone all day or opening a bag of his favorite treats can induce this enthusiastic behavior.

A bristled tail is a signal that your cat feels scared or threatened. The rest of the hair on his body may fluff up too. This is a way cats attempt to appear bigger to intimidate potential threats. On the other hand, a tail that is tucked between their legs likely means your cat is in distress. Unlike the bristled tail, this is how a cat attempts to look smaller and less intimidating to a threat.

Ears

Cats’ ears a more straightforward communication method. Forward ears show alertness, interest or happiness, whereas ears pointed backwards, sideways or flat demonstrate irritability, anger or fright. It is important to look at this communication tactic along with the tail to help determine exactly what your cat is trying to say to you. Just like human communication, looking at one cue and ignoring another can result in an unpleasant interaction.

“Meow!”

Though some cats are more vocal than others, they all communicate verbally.

Purring is a sign of contentment, but it is also a calming method in cats and can mean your kitty is not feeling well. Again, to differentiate between the two, look at your cats’ body language. If they are purring while laid out comfortably, that is a sign that he is happy. However, if he is hunched up in a “Buddha position,” and is hiding, he is probably not feeling well and should see a vet.

Short, chirp-like meows are a simple, “Hello, how are you” and overall affection whereas a mid-pitch meow is a plea for food, treats, etc. Also, a drawn out “mrraaoow” noise is a more aggressive hunger demand.

Hissing and growling are both hostile signals. These are signs of anger or fear and are overall warning signs that they are not comfortable with their current situation. A low-pitched “mrraaoow” noise is another signal that your cat is discontent. However, this is just a general complaint about not getting enough attention or food as quickly as they would like.

As you can see, there are many aspects to cat communication, and there are even more that are not listed here. By learning these cues and respecting what our animals are trying to say to us, we can create a happier and less stressful environment for both our animals and ourselves.

An Aiken native and self-proclaimed cat lady, Claire Roberson is the SPCA Albrecht Center’s Communications Director, working in marketing, grant writing and media correspondence. She attended College of Charleston, where she graduated with a degree in Nonprofit Business and interned with Charleston Animal Society, the leader in No-Kill South Carolina. When not working, you can find Claire hanging out with her 18-pound Maine Coon mix, Anakin.